Category Archives: IGBT News

The benefits of time-sensitive networking for IIoT and manufacturing

Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) will eventually move from the ideation stage to the main stage of deterministic networking. The IEEE TSN working group has completed the core standards required to implement TSN, and the industry has developed the first products supporting TSN technology, and simulations and demonstrations are underway. The widespread adoption of these technologies is precisely the full-scale Industrial IoT revolution that has often been discussed in the past.

The implementation of a complete time-sensitive network needs to be carried out in several stages. Businesses can’t just make technology upgrades to legacy legacy systems. While businesses cannot immediately replace existing equipment, they must change their infrastructure so that machines can communicate with each other more efficiently. Many manufacturers have seen the operational benefits of standardized Ethernet and do not require disparate networks to support time-critical and optimal Ethernet communications.

The benefits of time-sensitive networking for IIoT and manufacturing

The advantages of time-sensitive networks are twofold. First, it is based on standard Ethernet. Traffic over standard Ethernet, such as video and HTML, can share the physical network with high-priority deterministic Ethernet such as motion control. This is important because those industrial products that require deterministic services, which are now part of the network, require particular attention to latency and jitter. With TSN, all devices connected to the network can be part of a proven architecture rather than being isolated.

Time-sensitive networks can run at a set speed at any time and never stand still. Precise scheduling can speed up, slow down, and optimize the delivery of any packet. It’s barely wobbly, even where it holds more equipment. Instead of taking the same amount of time to process every packet, it can receive and interpret all the data at the same time, calculate the maximum time it will take before transmitting, and spread all the information seamlessly where it needs to go.

This technology is essential because as more devices are connected to the network, the need for a central “hub” to direct all trains and ensure they arrive on time is becoming increasingly important.

From concept to reality

One of the most important concepts in Industry 4.0 is a standard technology that all suppliers can operate. Instead of using a dozen or so fieldbus protocols, which would only limit companies to doing business with a certain supplier (or needing to convert equipment), the principles of Industry 4.0 emphasize uniform standards and bring everyone into the digital age. That’s why time-sensitive networking is such a valuable concept, and it’s why it’s getting so much attention during the standard-setting process.

What turns technology into reality more quickly is strong collaboration. Providers of network infrastructure must work closely with customers and automation suppliers. If this collaboration happens the way it needs to, widespread adoption could happen within two years, and time-sensitive networks should realize even more potential within the next five years.

The first step in the breakthrough is the continued adoption of the OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA). Once OPC UA integrates functionality into a framework, it should configure time-sensitive networking.

While companies cannot immediately replace existing machines, they must change their infrastructure so that machines can communicate with each other more efficiently to take advantage of TSN and IIoT.Image Credit: Cisco Corporation

Why IEEE Standards Matter

In many ways, the success of TSN comes down to efficiency. This will help guide the Industrial IoT to its full potential. Plus, because the technology is based on IEEE standards, all companies can participate. This means there are many vendors with a wider range of products to support time-sensitive networks. Without such an ecosystem, there would not be a large number of companies following up and implementing these technologies. Having interoperability—essentially a standard that all vendors must adhere to—will drive the industry to develop products that support the TSN standard.

It is clear that the capabilities of the Industrial Internet of Things will soon be available when the IEEE TSN working group completes the core standards required to implement time-sensitive networks. We are getting closer to this reality with the first deployments of time-sensitive networking products. (Author: Albert Mitchell)

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P40 is about to debut, or it will be equipped with Hongmeng and Android two-way system, Google will be kicked out

For Huawei, whether it is the much-anticipated 5G network or the smartphones that are frequently swiped at the fingertips of thousands of households, these things that flow through all levels of the smart industry make Huawei a rare domestic firm, especially in the face of In the event of the US suppression, Huawei has fully demonstrated the charm of Chinese-made in front of the world, which not only made the Chinese people full of pride in Huawei, but also gave a heavy blow to foreigners who do not like Huawei.

Internal and external pressure, Huawei broke out

When it comes to today’s Huawei, we must not avoid today’s smartphones. I vaguely remember that when Xiaomi first debuted, Huawei’s mobile phones were not very good. At that time, it was still dominated by Samsung and Nokia. However, Xiaomi, who was good at seizing the opportunity, grabbed the In response to the passion of Chinese people to experience 4G mania, Xiaomi has pushed Xiaomi to a climax with its unique cost-effective strategy, and Huawei’s pace of learning and innovation has followed closely behind.

Judging from the relevant survey results, Chinese mobile phone manufacturer Xiaomi maintained its first position with a market share of 15%; its shipments were 67.5 million units. Huawei ranked second, with its smartphone share in the Chinese market rapidly expanding due to the adoption of multiple distribution channels. In 2015, the shipments surged 51% to 62.2 million units compared with 2014, and the market share also increased by 4.5 percentage points to 14.2%, closely following Xiaomi.

Although both are based in the Android field, the marketing methods of the two are different. In the later development process, the distance is gradually widened. Huawei’s positive image has always been called a domestic product, while Xiaomi has been crowned as a product from the beginning. Taking the name of “Diaosi” mobile phone, it is like comparing a rich second-generation and counter-attacking Diaosi. Objectively speaking, Huawei surpasses Xiaomi. We all know that Huawei is an information and communication infrastructure and intelligent terminal provider. It is said that mobile phones are also one of the businesses, which Xiaomi cannot compare, but Xiaomi mobile phones surpass Huawei mobile phones. In terms of marketing methods, Xiaomi is superior to Huawei. There should be Xiaomi Mall and then Huawei Mall. There is another pollen club in the Mi Fan Club. The marketing model of Huawei’s mobile phone sub-brand Honor has the shadow of Xiaomi. It is also Huawei who saw the future trend of this brand-pressing brand early, and let Honor come to Xiaomi to expand domestic mobile phones for Huawei. The high-end situation has opened up the situation. This forward-looking layout has not been deployed until today. Many domestic mobile phones after Huawei have begun to slowly deploy, but Huawei’s high-end brand road has been rolled out, and today’s Huawei can be said to be booming in the mobile phone market.

In addition to mobile phones, Huawei’s old line of communications has not fallen behind. From 2009 to 2013, Huawei invested more than 600 million US dollars in 5G technology research; from 2017 to 2018, Huawei invested nearly 1.4 billion US dollars in 5G product development. As of January 2019, Huawei has the most 5G commercial partners in the world, up to 50+; Huawei has won 30 5G commercial contracts, and more than 25,000 5G base stations have been shipped around the world. It can be said that Huawei’s 5G full-band, full-scenario, and full-standard product solutions help customers efficiently build the highest-quality 5G network. It is precisely this that Huawei makes the United States feel uneasy. In addition to suppressing Huawei itself, it also pushes Google to suppress Huawei. Let Huawei not be able to show its strength in overseas markets on the basis of Android. I didn’t expect Huawei to expect such a result early. When the tension between Google and Huawei became more and more complicated, Huawei exposed its own Hongmeng system. This makes Google have to be wary of its own Android situation in today’s smartphone field, and also makes Huawei’s future layout make the Chinese people look forward to it even more.

Preventing problems before they happen, abandoning Android is inevitable for Hongmeng to open the way

However, when it comes to Google, it must be impossible to bypass Android, which is now functioning at the bottom of smartphones. In fact, whether Google and Huawei have such a thing, Huawei has a long history of system layout. After all, this system is different from a product. , requires deeper technical background.

In 2012, Ren Zhengfei said in an interview with the media that we are now doing a terminal operating system out of strategic considerations. If they suddenly cut off our food, the Android system will not be used for me, and the Windows Phone8 system will not be used for me. Well, are we stupid?

It is precisely with such a forward-looking vision that Huawei can fight back so hard when it is squeezed by Google.

On October 10, the Huawei Voice Community released the summary of an interview with Fortune magazine by Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei. In the interview minutes, Ren Zhengfei responded to a question from Clay Chandler, Executive Editor-in-Chief of Fortune Asia, “How confident are you in building Hongmeng into an operating system comparable to Apple’s in the next two to three years? Will it take longer?” Shi said: “For Huawei people, it doesn’t take two or three years. I can’t push the people below too hard.”

Obviously, Hongmeng at this time is enough to stand on its own. It can be said that the Hongmeng system is compatible with all Android applications and all web applications, and all Android software APPs today can run directly on Huawei’s own system without modification. One-click moving.

What is even more applauded is that these software will be more usable after moving to Huawei Hongmeng system, the system operation fluency will increase by 24%, the system responsiveness will increase by 44%, and the three-party application operation fluency will increase by 60%. With such achievements, Huawei dares to make experimental attempts on its products.

Previously, Huawei tried to install the Hongmeng system on its sub-brand Honor smart screen and other products, and the response was good, but after all, smart screens are different from mobile phones, and their application scenarios cannot be compared with mobile phones. Therefore, it is only a matter of time before the Hongmeng system is applied to mobile phones. question.

It is reported that a blogger broke the news on Twitter that Huawei P40 series mobile phones will have two versions of Hongmeng system and Android system. Unsurprisingly, it should be based on the Android system version, and at the same time launch a special edition model equipped with the Hongmeng system. Previously, Huawei officially stated that the first mobile phone equipped with the Hongmeng system will be launched in the first half of 2020. At present, it seems that Huawei’s deployment of the Hongmeng system is still very fast.

In addition, previously exposed news shows that the Huawei P40 series will be equipped with the Kirin 990 processor, and there will be a 5G version of the model. In terms of configuration, the Huawei P40 series will use a lift-type full screen on the front and five rear cameras, of which the main camera is 64 million pixels, and there will also be a ToF camera.

Previously, the Huawei P30 series can be said to have taken the limelight in the mobile phone circle, especially in terms of photography, it can be said to be a must-have for many people who like to take pictures, and as an upgraded generation of the P30, the P40 will naturally not be weak. The addition of the camera can be said to be an ironclad fact. As for the placement of the Hongmeng system, it is also very possible from the current position of Huawei in the mobile phone circle, especially after the occurrence of such a thing as Android.

If it really adopts the two-way system of Android and Hongmeng, as the industry broke the news, it is very possible for Huawei. On the one hand, because Hongmeng is the first time that Hongmeng will appear on a smartphone, Huawei must give this heavyweight product a beautiful As one of Huawei’s representative series of high-end mobile phones, the market response of Huawei P series is enough to make Hongmeng stand out; on the other hand, because Android must be the veteran in the mobile phone ecosystem, its established market position is obvious to all. It is obviously too risky to use Hongmeng instead of Android. And this time, if the deck effect of Hongmeng plus Android is used, it can be said that it not only preserves the ecological experience effect of Android, but also gives Hongmeng the opportunity to show its prominence. It can be said to kill two birds with one stone.

This kind of gameplay is undoubtedly a threat to Google, and for Huawei, its influence in the industry will be even higher, because 5G networks, smartphones, and chips play a supporting role in the entire application scenario. Huawei’s achievements have been recognized by the industry. If the Hongmeng system succeeds in counterattack again, Huawei’s smart layout will affect the change of the situation in an unprecedented situation. At that time, it can be said that Apple and Google will be beaten. More than enough, and Huawei will also truly add wings to “Made in China” for “Made in China”!

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China Coal Science and Huawei join forces with 5G to start large-scale application of coal mines

China Coal Science and Coal Science Academy and Huawei officially released the “F5G Intelligent Coal Mine Application Solution” and “Coal Mine F5G Application Technology White Paper” in Beijing, and the “Intelligent Mine Joint Laboratory” was established simultaneously. The large-scale application of 5G in coal mines is thus started.

Wang Guofa, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, said that as a new generation of mining network infrastructure, F5G optical network will provide an information highway for the intelligent construction of coal mines, further strengthen the real-time perception of multi-source information in coal mines, and enable the whole process of man-machine-environment-management digital Interconnection and efficient collaboration, reduce safety management and control risks, and promote fully automated operations on production sites.

According to the introduction of China Coal Science, the “F5G intelligent coal mine application solution” is based on the fifth-generation fixed network technology (F5G). It can provide rich communication access methods, such as PON port, 100M electrical port, Gigabit electrical port, RS485 communication, CAN bus, etc. The solution provides intelligent video recognition for important scenes such as foreign objects on underground belts and personnel violations, and remote control of shearers, roadheaders, pumps, compressors, switches and other equipment to ensure safety monitoring and precise positioning systems (personnel, vehicles, and underground intelligent transportation) It provides a simple, reliable and ultra-high-speed industrial data transmission network. This solution is a further innovation in the field of network architecture, protocol and process, which can escort the intelligent upgrade of the coal industry.

The “Coal Mine F5G Application Technology White Paper” provides technical guidance for the application of F5G in the underground.

The establishment of the “Intelligent Mine Joint Laboratory” further aggregates industrial strength, laying a solid foundation for all parties to strengthen cooperation in the fields of mining networks such as F5G and wireless communication, and jointly build an integrated cooperation model of “product research and development, environmental testing, and safety certification”. foundation.

(Source: Science and Technology Daily, Qu Jian)

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my country’s 5G base stations exceed 400,000 5G quickly entered our lives

At 10:00 on July 22, on Jintang Island, Zhoushan City, Zhejiang Province, under the 380-meter-high transmission tower, the red and white “machine nest” automatically opened, and a black drone slowly lifted into the air, targeting Zhenhai District, Ningbo City. The daily routine inspection of the 500 kV Xihoumen large spanning power transmission line in Zhoushan began.

“In the past, people used binoculars to look at the ground, which was not only inefficient, but also missed inspections,” said Han Lei, head of the drone project of State Grid Zhoushan Power Supply Company. The 5G intelligent drone autonomous inspection system has been put into use. The high-bandwidth and low-latency 5G network allows data, images, and videos to be instantly transmitted back to the control room, and inspection reports can be obtained with one click, increasing the efficiency by more than 4 times.

The latest statistics from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology show that as of the end of June, my country had accumulated more than 400,000 5G base stations; as of the end of July, the number of 5G terminal connections had reached 88 million.

How do you view the data of “over 400,000”?

Behind the “over 400,000” is that the speed and scale of 5G network construction exceed expectations

The Shanghai-Sutong Yangtze River Bridge, which opened to traffic in July, has built a 5G network. “The Shanghai-Sutong Bridge is used for both roads and railways, and the 5G signal must have double-layer coverage. The tower company has overcome difficulties such as high-altitude operations, limited construction time, and the need to be compatible with 2G/3G/4G/5G full-band coverage at the same time. Operating companies share the use, saving 60% of investment, and shortening the construction period by 60 days.” Ye Lu, general manager of China Tower Nantong Branch, said that this not only ensures higher reliability of train traffic signals, but also allows passengers to travel in the process of driving. Enjoy more fun with high internet speed.

Co-construction and sharing will make 5G network construction faster and more efficient. my country’s 5G base stations are growing at a rate of 15,000 new ones every week. In the first half of the year, 257,000 5G base stations were newly built, of which more than 97% of the construction needs were met by using stock resources.

Behind the “over 400,000” is the rapid entry of 5G into our lives and the little by little changes to the economy and society

“5G network speed is fast, high-definition video live broadcast is clear and smooth, which has helped me a lot!” Talking about the new changes brought by 5G, Zhou Weimin, manager of Mizhi Cuisine Restaurant at the foot of Phoenix Mountain in Hangzhou, was very emotional, “During the epidemic, the catering industry in tourist attractions Encountered difficulties, at first, I could only make 2,000 yuan of running water per day on average.”

In order to increase customer flow, Zhou Weimin tried every means: “I thought of live broadcast, introduced the characteristics of our store with live video, and also launched live takeaway. By the way, I also invited customers to ‘cloud travel’ Phoenix Mountain, business is improving day by day, the most day You can do 7,000 yuan in running water.”

Users benefiting from 5G, like Zhou Weimin, are growing rapidly at a rate of several million per month.

Behind the “over 400,000” is also a large number of innovative applications

It was rainy and rainy in Shanghai in July. Between Baosteel Co., Ltd. Baoshan Base and the wharf adjacent to the Yangtze River, unmanned heavy-duty frame trucks shuttled non-stop, and 100,000 tons of steel coils were smoothly turned around every day. This is the largest unmanned vehicle on heavy-duty highways that my country’s metallurgical industry has put into industrial application for the first time, and it is also a new attempt by Baosteel and China Telecom to jointly promote the application of 5G industrial Internet.

“After using the 5G+ unmanned heavy-duty frame vehicle, the single-roll operation rate increased by 3 minutes and 30 seconds, and the number of management personnel dropped from 130 to 30.” Xu Yonggang, chief customer manager of the government and enterprise customer department of China Telecom Shanghai Company, said that there will be no future in the future. There will be more than 130 people and vehicles.

Autonomous driving, industrial Internet, smart transportation, smart medical care, smart home, smart education… The deep integration of 5G with traditional industries such as industry, transportation, medical care, education, and energy is bursting with new sparks. The data shows that as of the end of June this year, the three basic telecommunications companies have accumulated 1.106 billion cellular IoT end users, a year-on-year increase of 32.7%, of which end users applied to smart manufacturing, smart transportation, and smart public utilities have grown by 21.1% and 21.1% respectively. 18.2%, 21.4%. There are more than 70 industrial Internet platforms with strong industry and regional influence across the country, and the number of connected industrial equipment reaches 40 million.


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The domestic OLED TV market has experienced a serious decline, and the LGD Chinese market is struggling

Recently, the Guangzhou Municipal Bureau of Ecology and Environment issued an administrative penalty decision. LG Display (China) Co., Ltd. (one of the LGD factories) was fined 600,000 yuan for excessive particulate matter emissions. The administrative penalty decision shows that the actual emission of soot (particulate matter) from the LGD factory in 2018 was 1.653524 tons, which exceeded the allowable annual exhaust emission limit of 0.891 tons of soot (particulate matter) by nearly double. The reporter interviewed the relevant person in charge of LGD on the above issues, but has not received a reply as of press time.

Recently, a factory of LG Display (hereinafter referred to as “LGD”) was fined 600,000 yuan for environmental protection issues. LGD’s 8.5-generation OLED factory started mass production at the end of August this year. However, domestic sales of OLED TVs, which were once highly anticipated, were challenged this year. The reporter noticed that the stock price of LGD has fallen by 17.58% this year. In addition, the internal executive team has undergone a major change, which has attracted investors’ attention.

A LGD factory was fined 600,000 yuan

The penalty decision stated that the annual emission limit of smoke and dust (particulate matter) from LGD’s factory has been adjusted many times, mainly because it has not seriously fulfilled its main responsibility as a construction unit, so that smoke and dust (particulate matter) appeared in the preparation of the second EIA document of the project involved. ) calculation errors and omissions (there was an error in the calculation of nitrogen oxides when the first EIA document was prepared before); in addition, the LGD factory should also strictly urge third-party monitoring agencies to adopt standardized sampling monitoring methods and issue accurate smoke and dust (Particulate matter) monitoring data.

The Guangzhou Municipal Bureau of Ecology and Environment believes that the fact that the actual emission of soot (particulate matter) from the LGD factory in 2018 exceeded the allowable annual exhaust emission limit of soot (particulate matter) is clear and should be punished. According to relevant regulations, he was ordered to correct his illegal behavior immediately and imposed a fine of 600,000 yuan. It is understood that the LGD factory has been re-issued the “Guangdong Province Pollutant Discharge Permit” by the relevant departments on August 27, 2019 (valid period: August 27, 2019 to August 26, 2024). The annual exhaust emission limit of soot (particulate matter) is adjusted to 8.26 tons.

The domestic OLED TV market may decline this year

Because the material is lighter and thinner, transparent and flexible, OLED can realize a variety of designs, bringing more possibilities for the design of future TVs. However, just when institutions are generally optimistic and global TV manufacturers are betting, some institutions predict that the sales of OLED TVs in the Chinese market will reach 170,000 units this year, a full 10,000 units less than last year. fell for the first time in years. The reporter learned that the current penetration rate of OLED TVs in China is still relatively low.

LGD’s management team changes and the new management is difficult to reverse the decline

LGD’s management changes and performance decline have also attracted attention before. It is understood that in October this year, more than 20 company executives of LGD were laid off, accounting for about 17% of its administrative staff. However, the management changes did not bring a significant boost to performance. The latest financial report from LGD shows that the cumulative operating loss of LGD in the first three quarters was 957.5 billion won, and the net loss exceeded 1 trillion won.

It is understood that the LGD China OLED project started construction in July 2017, with a total investment of about 46 billion yuan. The glass substrate size of the project is 2200mm × 2500mm. OLED panel. Official production was announced at the end of August this year, with an initial production capacity of 60,000 glass substrates per month, and a maximum production capacity of 90,000 glass substrates per month by the end of 2021.

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IPOSIM Past and Present – From Device-Level Computing to System-Based Simulation

【Introduction】Selecting the appropriate power semiconductor device is the core of power circuit design. It is necessary to calculate the loss of the device, the system temperature, and sometimes the life of the device. This is a systematic project, which generally requires a professional team and a variety of simulation software to implement. This is difficult for most design teams to implement. For this reason, the device-based loss and temperature calculation tool IPOSIM provided by Infineon 25 years ago has been developed to this day. Cloud simulation for PLECS.

Birth of IPOSIM

IPOSIM—IGBT Power Simulation for eupec IGBT was born in the late 1990s. It is a calculation book for IGBT and freewheeling diode loss and thermal simulation based on Excel Sheet. In the early days, it only supported more than 100 models of NPT type second Generation IGBT.

my collector’s edition

This simple and easy-to-use “simulation” ends the history of engineers needing to calculate by hand, and frees engineers from tedious and repetitive calculations.Many companies have since moved away from the era when thermal design relies on gross estimation, but this spreadsheet is positioned as a product selection tool

It is assumed that the current flowing through the device is sinusoidal and a linear approximation is made.

The IPOSIM Excel version has undergone 6 major revisions, and when it retired from the stage of history, it has been very powerful. It can compare the loss, junction temperature, case temperature, ripple of multiple devices, and give the maximum output RMS current capability. It is even possible to calculate varying losses and temperatures for varying load conditions, but in the final analysis it is still based on device calculations.

Enable cloud simulation

The online version of IPOSIM is an important turning point for Infineon’s digital simulation platform. In the 2010s, Infineon began to use Transim Technology, an online design solution provider in the semiconductor industry, to launch the IPOSIM online design simulation tool. The background simulation software is Portunus. This simulation platform is free of installation and has a friendly GUI user interface. It can help you quickly get results step by step. It is much more powerful than the IPOSIM Excel version. It is a system-based simulation and can support multiple topologies and 4 types of DC/AC modulations. Strategy, the accuracy is also higher than formula calculation.

A new era for IPOSIM

In 2018, Infineon started to use PLECS as the web version of the IPOSIM background simulation platform. The advantage of this is to improve the simulation performance. We open up device PLECS models for our customers, so engineers can use circuit templates and thermal/electrical models for simulation both online and offline.

Today’s IPOSIM supports 19 different power circuit topologies, including ANPC in tri-level, and the device library includes IGBT/SiC modules, single transistors, power diodes and thyristors, among others.

The modulation method of the system is very rich. The three-phase and two-level modulation methods include 9 modulation methods such as sinusoidal modulation and six space vector methods. The load can be selected from inductive load and capacitive load. The output frequency is as low as 0.1Hz.

Simulations include static operating conditions, cyclic loading, and module device lifetime estimates.

Largest and Smallest IGBTs:

In the device library of IPOSIM, there are single tubes as small as 1A 600V SOT-223 package, which is the smallest IGBT in the industry, as large as 750A 6500V IGBT module, the largest IGBT module in the industry, and the size difference of the heat dissipation surface is more than 1200 times. In the actual system The IGBT loss is more than 10,000 times worse.

We can do loss and thermal simulations under different topologies and modulation strategies through IPOSIM. We also open the PLECS model for simulation, which can be downloaded by registering with myinfineon.

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Paving the way for the next wireless technology breakthrough

The pace of wireless innovation is getting faster and faster, enabling faster, more responsive, and more reliable connectivity around the world. The wireless communications industry is primed for major technological change in multiple systems. To increase data throughput, cellular communications are upgrading from 4G to 5G, while satellite communications providers are building networks in space, aiming to provide high-speed communications to every corner of the globe.

By Eric Hsu, Product Marketing Manager, Keysight Technologies

The pace of wireless innovation is getting faster and faster, enabling faster, more responsive, and more reliable connectivity around the world. The wireless communications industry is primed for major technological change in multiple systems. To increase data throughput, cellular communications are upgrading from 4G to 5G, while satellite communications providers are building networks in space, aiming to provide high-speed communications to every corner of the globe. Wireless engineers want breakthroughs in technology that maximize system throughput and create robust links and data processing capabilities. For the wireless system physical layer, key technologies involve larger bandwidths, higher-order modulation schemes, and multi-antenna technology in wireless systems.

Greater signal bandwidth

Due to the limited spectrum available for allocation, standards development organizations want to provide greater bandwidth in higher frequency bands. For example, the frequency range 2 (FR2) specified in 5G New Radio (NR) Rel-15 is 24.25 GHz to 52.6 GHz with a maximum channel bandwidth of 400 MHz. Rel-16 introduces license-exempt frequency bands in the 5 GHz and 6 GHz frequency ranges. By mid-2022, 3GPP Rel-17 will extend the unlicensed spectrum to 71 GHz.

Satellite communications provide connectivity for television, telephony, broadband Internet services and military communications. Satellites can operate in many frequency bands between L-band and Ka-band. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has allocated 71 to 76 GHz and 81 to 86 GHz in the W-band to the satellite service. Commercial satellite operators want more bandwidth in these bands. On June 30, 2021, a satellite equipped with a W-band wireless transmitter was successfully launched into the sky. In the near future, we can expect to witness more commercial projects in the W-band.

The mmWave band provides more usable bandwidth. Large bandwidth enables high throughput data and low latency, but the increased bandwidth also introduces more noise, which affects system performance. Wireless engineers need to manage the noise issues of broadband communications. In addition to generating more system noise, expanding bandwidth at higher frequency bands creates other challenges for design and test, such as path loss, frequency response, and phase noise.

Higher order modulation schemes

Higher-order modulation schemes can increase the data rate without increasing the signal bandwidth, while the symbols are spaced closer together, making them more sensitive to noise. As modulation density increases, devices require better modulation quality. Table 1 lists the error vector magnitude (EVM) requirements specified in 3GPP Rel-16 technical specification 38.141 for 5G NR base stations. 3GPP is also considering 1,024 QAM with tighter design and test margins.

modulation scheme

False EVM requested (%)









Table 1. Modulation quality requirements in 5G NR base station transmitter testing.

Greater signal bandwidth and higher-order modulation schemes both increase throughput. However, greater bandwidth does not necessarily mean higher system capacity. You have to consider the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the communication system. Proper SNR is critical to maintaining communication links. The larger the bandwidth, the more noise is introduced into the system; the higher the modulation scheme, the more susceptible it is to noise. You need to transmit high-power signals without distortion and reduce system noise in order to maintain the performance of the communication link. To test your design, you need to accurately characterize every component and every subsystem shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Accurately verify RF components with stimulus-response measurements.

Multiple Antenna Technology

Most wireless systems used in commercial applications and aerospace and defense use multiple antennas at the receiver and/or transmitter to improve overall system performance. These techniques include spatial diversity, spatial multiplexing, and beamforming. Engineers employ multi-antenna techniques to achieve diversity, multiplexing, or antenna gain. Such techniques help to improve the data throughput and SNR of wireless system receivers. For example, 5G NR uses 8 spatial streams in FR1 to improve spectral efficiency without increasing signal bandwidth. 3GPP has therefore defined in Technical Specification (TS) 38.141-1 how to use multiple spatial streams for performance testing for 5G NR base stations. Testing requires up to two transmitter antennas and eight receiver antennas, with specific propagation conditions, correlation matrices, and SNR applied to each test case. Figure 2 shows a 5G base station performance multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) test configuration for two transmitter antennas and four receiver antennas, which can provide hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) feedback.

Figure 2. Test setup for testing 5G NR base station performance using a four-channel signal generator.

Compared to IEEE 802.11ax, the next-generation Wi-Fi standard, IEEE 802.11be (Wi-Fi 7), offers twice the signal bandwidth, 16 spatial streams, and four times the density of modulation schemes. Together, they provide data rates up to 40 Gbps. Table 2 lists the major changes to the IEEE 802.11 physical layer.

IEEE 802.11 standard

Maximum signal bandwidth

modulation scheme

Number of spatial streams

802.11be (Wi-Fi 7)


OFDM, up to 4,096 QAM

up to 16

802.11ax (Wi-Fi 6)


OFDM, up to 1,024 QAM

up to 8

Table 2. IEEE 802.11 standards.

To test multi-antenna systems using spatial diversity, spatial multiplexing, and multiple antenna array techniques, you need a test system that can provide multi-channel signals with stable phase relationships between the signals. However, commercial signal generators use a separate synthesizer to upconvert intermediate frequency (IF) signals to RF signals. The test system must provide precise timing synchronization between channels to simulate multi-channel test signals. The phase between the test signals must be coherent and controllable. Figure 3 shows a fully integrated, calibrated and synchronized signal generation and analysis solution that can help you minimize measurement uncertainty for multi-antenna testing.

Figure 3. Multi-channel test solution using the Keysight M9484C VXG four-channel vector signal generator and four-port oscilloscope.


Next-generation wireless communication systems such as 5G, satellite, and Wi-Fi require higher frequencies, larger bandwidths, more complex modulation schemes, and multi-antenna designs. This will help you address new design and test challenges, such as increased test complexity, measurement uncertainty, excessive path loss and noise, which can affect device performance.

To meet these challenges, you need a scalable test solution that accurately and easily supports larger frequency coverage, wider bandwidth, and multi-channel applications. With a fully integrated, calibrated and synchronized solution, you can reduce test complexity and get repeatable and accurate results quickly.

About Keysight

Keysight Technologies provides advanced design and verification solutions designed to accelerate innovation and create a secure, connected world. While focusing on speed and precision, we are also working on enabling deeper insights and analysis through software. Throughout the product development cycle, from design simulation, prototyping, automated software testing, manufacturing analysis, to network performance optimization and visualization, Keysight can bring forward-looking technologies and products to market faster. Market to fully meet the needs of enterprises, service providers and cloud environments. Our customers span the global communications and industrial ecosystem, aerospace and defense, automotive, energy, semiconductor and general electronics markets. In fiscal 2021, Keysight’s revenue was $4.9 billion. For more information about Keysight Technologies, Inc. (NYSE: KEYS), visit

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Applied Materials Publishes Second Quarter Fiscal 2021 Financial Results

SANTA CLARA, Calif., May 20, 2021–Applied Materials, Inc. (NASDAQ: AMAT) announced its financial results for the second quarter of fiscal 2021, which ended on May 2, 2021.

Fiscal 2021 Second Quarter Results

Applied Materials reported revenue of $5.58 billion. On a GAAP basis, the company’s gross margin was 47.5%, operating profit was $1.58 billion, or 28.3% of net sales, and earnings per share (EPS) were $1.43.

On an adjusted non-GAAP basis, the company had gross margin of 47.7%, operating profit of $1.77 billion, or 31.7% of net sales, and EPS of $1.63.

The company delivered cash flow from operating activities of $1.19 billion and returned $952 million to shareholders through dividends of $202 million and share repurchases of $750 million.

“Applied’s record performance was driven by our deep-rooted, broad-based semiconductor business,” said Gary Dixon, President and CEO of Applied Materials. “Broad and long-term trends are driving interest in semiconductors. Continued demand, while our leadership in materials engineering becomes increasingly important for developing new chip technologies, Applied Materials is confident in its ability to outperform the market.”

Performance at a glance

Second-quarter GAAP results included a $154 million termination fee, payable under the terms of the purchase agreement with KKR HKE Investment LP and shares in International Electric, which reduced earnings by $0.17 per share.

Reconciling information between GAAP and non-GAAP financial statements is included in the financial statements in this press release. See “Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below.

Business Outlook

Looking ahead to the third quarter of fiscal 2021, Applied Materials expects net sales of approximately $5.92 billion, plus or minus $200 million. Adjusted non-GAAP diluted EPS is expected to be between $1.70 and $1.82.

Non-GAAP diluted EPS estimates in Applied’s fiscal 2021 third-quarter outlook exclude known charges related to closing the acquisition of $0.01 per share, including the standard tax benefit of $0.01 per share related to stock-based incentives and the company Income tax benefit of $0.03 per share related to transfers of internal intangible assets, but does not reflect other currently unknown items, such as additional charges related to acquisitions or other non-operating and non-recurring items, and other tax-related items , considering its inherent uncertainty, the company cannot make reasonable predictions for it at present.

Second quarter financial performance by division

Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures

Applied Materials provides investors with non-GAAP adjusted financial statements adjusted for the impact of certain costs, expenses, gains and losses, including certain items related to mergers and acquisitions; restructuring and severance expense and any related adjustments ; increased expenses related to COVID-19; impairment adjustments on assets; gains or losses from strategic investments; losses from early settlement of debt; certain income tax items and other adjustments. On a non-GAAP basis, taxes related to equity incentives have been recognized on a pro-rata basis for the current fiscal year. In addition, non-GAAP results exclude estimated income tax expense items related to changes in U.S. tax legislation. Reconciling information between GAAP and non-GAAP financial statements is included in the financial statements in this press release.

The company’s managers use non-GAAP financial reports to evaluate the company’s operational and financial performance for business planning purposes and as a performance indicator in their executive compensation programs. Applied Materials believes that by eliminating items that are not relevant to current operations, these measures will help improve understanding of the company’s overall performance, and allow investors to view the company’s operating capabilities from the same standpoint as managers, making it easier to invest The authors compare the financial results of the two quarters before and after. The use of non-GAAP financial reporting has certain limitations, because its measurement caliber is inconsistent with generally accepted GAAP accounting standards, it may also be different from the non-GAAP methods used in the accounting and reporting of other companies, and may exclude some of the reporting Items in which financial data has a significant impact. This additional information does not replace, nor should it supplement, the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP principles.

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Focusing on the third-generation semiconductor cutting field, Shengguang Silicon Research completed strategic financing

Investment community – Xi’an Venture News on June 16, recently, Xi’an Shengguang Silicon Research semiconductor Technology Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Shengguang Silicon Research”) completed strategic financing. The investor is Shenzhen Jiejiawei Innovative Energy Equipment Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Jiejia Flextronics”), help Shengguang Silicon Research to become a demonstration high-tech company with technology carrying capacity and innovation-driven development for the pan-semiconductor industry. After this investment, the registered capital of Shengguang Silicon Research Institute increased to RMB 21.3333 million.

Shengguang Silicon Research was established in February 2021. Its main business is the research and development and sales of semiconductor materials and special equipment. Its main products include rounding, slicing, dicing and other equipment around the third-generation semiconductor wafer materials. As a technology leader in the new generation of semiconductor material processing equipment, Shengguang Silicon Research has 9 core technology patents in the field of semiconductor processing equipment. The micro-jet laser cutting technology it masters has successfully completed the cutting of 6-inch silicon carbide ingots, which can The preparation of high-efficiency, high-quality, low-cost, low-damage, and high-yield silicon carbide single crystal substrates is original, pioneering and pioneering in the field of third-generation semiconductor cutting, which will lead to global technological iterations in this field , has a very wide range of promotion and application value.

It is understood that Shengguang Silicon Research has patented a one-way four-way two-way six- and eight-step step cutting process for silicon carbide wafers, which is cut to the deepest position for the first time through the symmetrical position in the thickness direction of the silicon carbide ingot; In the same way as the right side, make 3 cuts to the same depth as the first time, so as to establish a relatively smooth surface with multiple water jet widths. This surface is used as the starting surface for the second depth cut to avoid water column interference; symmetrical at the center First cut of layer 2 to its deepest depth with the same spout on the left side of the line; followed by 2 cuts to the right of the thickness symmetry axis and to the same depth as the first cut of layer 2; first cut of layer 3 , to reach the depth above the radius of the silicon carbide ingot. The invention realizes high-depth cutting of single-crystal silicon carbide ingots through step cutting, realizes high-efficiency, high-quality, low-cost, low-damage and high-yield preparation of SiC single-crystal substrates, and has the value of popularization and application.

Yang Sen, general manager of Shengguang Silicon Research Institute, publicly disclosed the technical details and technical extension path for the first time at this event. After two years of research and development by the Shengguang Silicon Research Institute team, the surface morphology of the wafer completed by one cut is close to CMP processing. Level. And completed the registration of 9 patents, the declaration of 6 original invention patents, and has made a market promotion plan and long-term technology upgrade plan in the field of cutting technology.

Tian Nong, director of the Investment Cooperation Committee of Xi’an Aerospace Base, pointed out that in the context of decoupling between China and the United States, domestic independent innovation and development is the only way to go. The third-generation semiconductors represented by silicon carbide (SiC) have always been highly valued by the market. As an in-situ transformation project of scientific and technological achievements in the aerospace base, the research has won the strategic investment of the listed company Jiejia Flextronics, and has been recognized by the industry’s leading enterprises, which is an important milestone in the development.

Yu Zhong, chairman of investor Jiejia Flextronics, said that with the rapid development of 5G, artificial intelligence, and new energy vehicles, my country’s third-generation semiconductor industry is also fully erupting. Future development requires forward-looking technology to help start-ups and promote local Innovation. In the face of this important historical opportunity, Jiejia Flextronics will help Shengguang Silicon Research Institute, seize the latest development trend in the application of semiconductor materials in the information industry, and jointly promote lane-changing and overtaking in China’s semiconductor field.

Jiejia Flextronics is a leading national high-tech enterprise engaged in R&D, production and sales of crystalline silicon solar cell equipment. The main products include photovoltaic equipment for semiconductor doping deposition processes such as PECVD and diffusion furnaces, photovoltaic equipment for wet processes such as cleaning, etching, and texturing, as well as automatic (supporting) equipment, automatic screen printing equipment and other crystalline silicon solar cell production processes. The R&D, manufacturing and sales of the main and supporting equipment in the company, the annual operating income in 2020 is more than 4 billion.

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Midea’s second wave of donations: all home appliances in Leishenshan Hospital

It was learned from Midea Group that on the afternoon of January 25, Wuhan City announced the construction of another “Xiaotangshan Hospital” in Jiangxia District – Leishenshan Hospital in Jiangxia District. After learning the news, Midea Group took the initiative to contact the Wuhan Urban Construction Committee immediately, and reconfirmed the donation of all household appliances needed for the construction of Leishenshan Hospital in Jiangxia District.

At the same time, Midea Group’s series of donations to Huoshenshan Hospital are being implemented in an orderly manner: the first batch of 300 sets of fresh air + windless air conditioners have been loaded and ready to be shipped to the hospital construction site. On the 25th, Midea Group announced that after full communication with the Wuhan government and the medical system, Midea Group launched an emergency rescue operation in Wuhan, donating all household appliances (including household air conditioners, central Air conditioners, water heaters, water dispensers, washing machines and dryers and other household appliances).

On the 25th, the Wuhan Epidemic Prevention Headquarters held a scheduling meeting and decided to build another “Xiaotangshan Hospital” – Wuhan Leishenshan Hospital, in addition to Wuhan Caidian Huoshenshan Hospital, within half a month, with 1,300 new beds.

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